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Close relationships are sometimes called interpersonal relationships. The closest relationships are most often found with family and a small circle of best friends. Interpersonal relationships require the most effort to nurture and maintain. These are also the Looking for mutual satification that give you the most joy and satisfaction.
An interpersonal relationship is an association between two or more people that may range from fleeting to enduring. This association may be based on inference, love, solidarity, regular business interactions, or some other type of social commitment. Interpersonal relationships are formed in the context of social, cultural and other influences. The context can vary from family or kinship relations, friendship, marriage, relations with associates, work, clubs, neighborhoods, and places of worship.
They may be regulated by law, custom, or mutual agreement, and are the basis of social groups and society as a whole. A relationship is normally viewed as a connection between individuals, such as a romantic or intimate relationship, or a parent—child relationship. Individuals can also have relationships with groups of people, such as the relation between a pastor and his congregation, an uncle and a family, or a mayor and a town.
Finally, groups or even nations may have relations with each other. When in a healthy relationship, happiness is shown and the relationship is now a priority. Interpersonal relationships are dynamic systems that change continuously during their existence.
Like living organisms, relationships have a beginning, a lifespan, and Looking for mutual satification end. They grow and improve gradually, as people get to know each other and become closer emotionally, or they gradually deteriorate as people drift apart, move on with their lives, and form new relationships with others. A of theories have been formed to understand interpersonal relationships. There is merit to looking at relationships from the perspective of each of these theories. To believe exclusively in one theory and disregard the other theories would limit our understanding of social relationships.
From the moment of birth, human beings depend on others to satisfy their basic needs. Through this, children come to associate close personal contact with the satisfaction of basic needs. Later in life, we continue to seek personal contact for the same reason, even though we know we are capable of flling our own needs without relying on others for survival. Also, being around others becomes a habit and the basic physical needs of infancy expand to include emotional and social needs aswell. These can include the needs for praise, respect, affection, love, achievement, and so on.
It is these needs which are acquired through social learning that motivate us as humans to seek relationships with people who can satisfy our needs throughout our lives. Good relationships require management, effort, and attention, but the investment pays off in many ways. Special bonds with other people are important for both mental and physical health. Research supports the idea that if we have strong, caring relationships with others, we are more likely to be healthy and live longer. Satisfying relationships with family and friends promote career success and we feel more protected as well Looking for mutual satification happy.
Poor relations, on the other hand, may promote depression, drug abuse, weight problems, and other mental health problems. Some qualities of a good relationship may be evident from the moment we meet a person.
Other traits develop along with the relationship, giving the relationship strength and stability. Types of Interpersonal Relationships We define types of interpersonal relationships in terms of relational contexts of interaction and the types of expectations that communicators have of one another.
In an attempt to understand why people form relationships a of theories have been formed. These include:. Phases of Interpersonal Relationships Identified four sequential phases in the interpersonal relationship:. People are generally social animals, they seek the company of others. People are meant to feel secure when a certain person is present, and to feel anxious when that person is absent.
This desire for human contact can be thought of as a two-pronged need; the need for attachment and the need for affiliation. These are two distinct, yet interrelated needs. Attachment of children to caregivers:Children develop different styles of attachment based on their past experiences and interactions with their caregivers.
Four different attachment styles have been identified in children: secure, anxious-ambivalent, anxious-avoidant, and disorganized. This theory has become the dominant theory today when studying infant and toddler behavior. Attachments with caregivers early in life are crucial for healthy development since they act as templates for later relationships. Four attachment styles have been identified in adults: secure, anxious-preoccupied, dismissive-avoidant, and fearful-avoidant.
Investigators have explored the organization and stability of mental working models that underlie these attachment styles. Confirming and Valuing Relationship Theory Research indicates that human beings need company most when they are afraid, anxious, or unsure of themselves and want to compare their feelings with those of others.
Relationships help people to confirm and validate their ideas and feelings as well as to value themselves. Social science research indicates that confirming and valuing happens in three stages. The confirming and valuing theory happens in three stages:. Can you think of a relationship with another person who consistently recognizes you, acknowledges you and endorses your feelings and ideas?
How Looking for mutual satification is this relationship to you? Ex the brothers off of Stepbrothers realize that they will be brothers which is recognition, when they start talking about things they both enjoy that is acknowledgment, when they decide that they have just become BEST FRIENDS that is the endorsement stage. Social Exchange Theory. The rewards of a relationship or outcomes a person derives must be greater than, or at least equal to, the investment costs of the relationship. Rewards can be love, status, information, money, goods, services and so on.
The following formula captures the essence of the social exchange theory. According to the social exchange theory, a person seeks to form and maintain those relationships that give the most rewards for the least costs. Equity Theory The equity theory is basically a more complex version of the social exchange theory. Some social science researchers believe that people are not solely motivated by the need to achieve a positive balance sheet in their relationships.
Equity theory explains that people are also concerned about equity in their relationships. In other words, they believe that the rewards and costs they experience in a relationship should be roughly equal to the rewards and costs experienced by their relationship partner. While the rewards and costs may vary in kind, they are roughly equivalent in their value to the individuals involved. The essence of the equity theory may be illustrated by the following formula:. Ex when in a relationship and all the work, time, money and feelings are equal to what your partner is putting into a relationship that is the equity theory.
Ex if you are always the one buying everything and making sure everything is working and running smoothly in your relationship when your partner does nothing for you ever, then you two are not equal because on one side you add so much cost and get very little rewards and your partner gets lots of rewards and submits no cost. The mindfulness theory of relationships shows how closeness in relationships may be enhanced. Ex you are out one night with your ificant other, and just by the look on their face and their body language, you can tell that they want to go home and so do you.
The of stages, the names given to various stages, and the descriptions of stages vary from researcher to researcher. Murstein, for example, has a three-stage model, Levenger proposes a five-stage model and Knapp breaks down the rise and fall of relationships into ten stages. The currently most widely accepted model was developed by Mark Knapp in The stages can broadly apply to all relationships. They are especially descriptive of intimate, romantic relationships, and of close friendships. Initiating: expressing interest in making contact and showing that you are the kind of person worth getting to know.
Experimenting: the process of getting to know others and gaining more information about them.
Intensifying: an interpersonal relationship is now beginning to emerge. Integrating: identification as a social unit. Social circles merge. Partners develop unique, ritualistic ways of behaving. Obligation to the other person increases. Some personal characteristics are replaced and we become different people. Bonding: the two people make symbolic public gestures to show society that their relationship exists rings, friendship bracelets, gifts, commitment. Differentiating: the need to re-establish separate identities begins to emerge.
The key to successful differentiation is maintaining a commitment to the relationship while creating the space for autonomy and individuality. Circumscribing: communication between the partners decreases in quantity and quality. It involves a certain amount of shrinking of interest and commitment.
Stagnating: no growth occurs. Partners behave toward each other in old, familiar ways without much feeling. Avoiding: the creation of physical, mental, and emotional distance between the partners. Termination: in romantic relationships the best predictor of whether the two people will now become friends is whether they were friends before their emotional involvement. The illustration below shows how the ten stages can be grouped into three overlapping and integrated phases: the Coming Together phase, the Relational Maintenance phase, and the Coming Apart phase.
Psychologists who agree with the process models of relationship development point out that people grapple with the same kinds of challenges, whether a relationship is relatively new or already well established.
Process Models suggest that the key to successful relationships lies in finding a balance between opposing or incompatible forces that function simultaneously in our lives. Theorists call these conflicting forces dialectical tensions. Three powerful dialectal tensions that are inherent in the majority of relationships include the following:. Rules help to establish a balance between dialectical forces. Rules here can be defined as shared opinions or beliefs about what should or should not be done in the relationship.
Rules vary with the particular types of relationships. Because relationships are unique, they may have a set of common rules and a set of unique rules that guide behaviour. Looking for mutual satification of common rules that apply in all or most relationships are: respect for privacy, honesty, confidences, and emotional support.
These rules can change in severity depending on the morals, beliefs and views of the people in the relationship. Rules provide checks and balances that help maintain satisfying relationships. Violating the rules may put the relationship in jeopardy. Relax Optimistically If you are comfortable around others, they will feel comfortable around you.Looking for mutual satification
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