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Added: Lianne Schendel - Date: 21.11.2021 11:41 - Views: 49116 - Clicks: 6127

Couples or women w

While China has decreasing female labor participation and increasing marital instability, compared to the rest of the world, its female labor participation rate is higher on average. The effect of female labor force status on couples' marital satisfaction, as one of the main factors for evaluating marital quality, has been separately discussed, including extensive margins considering whether women are in the labor market and intensive margins on women working hours per week.

showed that the work hours, rather than the occupational status, of women affect marital satisfaction. In addition, regardless of the gender role attitudes held by the couple, marital satisfaction increases when women are in the labor market. This study has retroactively reviewed the effects of women working outside the home on marital quality.

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The dual roles of Chinese women, as both employee and homemaker, have been socially accepted. However, the requirements of maintaining multiple roles often contradict and present conflicts among the roles, time, and pressure, in the long run, giving rise to marital dissatisfaction. Most developed countries experience an increase in female labor participation and marital instability simultaneously Greenstein, ; Rogers, ; Sayer and Bianchi, However, in China, the trend features increased marital instability and decreased female labor participation see Figure 1.

Figure 1. Female labor force participation rate is the proportion of the female population aged 15 years and older that is economically active and modeled based on ILO estimate. Chinese crude divorce rate is the of divorces per 1, people in China.

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Sources: World Bank. However, during that era, overworked women were a common phenomenon Pan, ; Li and Li, With the Couples or women w to a market-oriented economy aftermacro-level factors of the market system, economy development, and micro-level factors related to family needs have mutually contributed to the decrease in female labor participation. In a market-oriented economy, the market is the chief driver of labor allocation, not the government.

Females were able to make independent decisions regarding whether to enter the labor market. Thus, part of the decline in female labor participation could be attributed to individual decisions Pan, Organizations transformed into rational employers to balance costs and benefits.

Female and male employees started to compete for the same positions. Due to medical liabilities unique to the female gender and gender discrimination toward assumed insufficient female productivity, female employees lost their competitive advantage, which partly explained the decline in female labor participation Pan, ; Li and Li, ; Wu, With economic development, however, the rise in individual income levels increased the demand for leisure time; therefore, some females left the labor market.

Through this process, domestic labor division was strengthened Ding, Since China's economic reform, government-supported caretaking has been gradually terminated, shifting childrearing, and eldercare back to households Ji, ; Qi and Dong, Therefore, the traditional expectation from women to care for children and the elderly has also contributed to low female labor market participation Ma et al.

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Therefore, gender inequality in the country is reinforced by political and economic decisions, and Chinese women who wish to work undertake two opposing roles—being full-time employees and homemakers—which reveals a discrepancy between egalitarian household economic relationships and complementarian household labor divisions, ultimately increasing tension within families Robinson, ; Zhu, Figure 2.

Since the s, Chinese attitudes toward marriage and family have transitioned from a strict traditional hierarchical system to a relatively relaxed modern one, focusing on individualism, and an egalitarian relationship between an individual and the family members Ma et al. This transition consequently has altered family formation, structure, size, and the relationships between husbands and wives, and between parents and children Xu and Ocker, ; Ma et al.

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A new marriage law, enacted infeatured a simplified divorce procedure that shifted control of marital decisions from extended families to individuals, who became empowered to independently determine whether to begin or end a marriage, especially enabling development for women Pimentel, ; Xu and Ocker, ; Ma et al.

Thus, social acceptance of divorce is increasing, and people can pursue divorce without limitations. Indeed, a vast majority of divorce proceedings have been initiated by women Platte, ; Xu, Thus, the divorce rate increased from 0. Most studies have concentrated on marital effects on female labor participation. Theories of domestic labor division and work-to-family conflicts explain marital effects on gender differences in labor participation, where female employees are more likely than male employees to postpone work tasks due to family issues Ogawa and Ermisch, ; Yu and Lee, ; Cai, ; Jiang and Dai, ; Wu, However, few studies have explained the retroactive effects of female labor participation on marital issues.

Furthermore, female labor participation and marital stability have a bilateral relationship. On the one hand, there is no clear causal relationship between female labor participation and marital instability. Based on gender role differences, the loss of economic power exchange between the genders when women are employed and the independence of working women have contributed to the positive causal relationship between a rise in female labor participation and increasing marital instability Parsons, ; Ross and Sawhill, ; Booth et al.

However, GreensteinOppenheimerRogersand Sayer and Bianchi found little empirical support for the positive causal relationship between female labor participation and marital instability. On the other hand, there does exist a clear positive causal relationship between marital instability Couples or women w female labor participation.

Increase in marital instability contributes to the rise of female labor participation, especially for women with high divorce risk and who are not employed Johnson and Skinner, ; Greenstein, ; Ogawa and Ermisch, ; Rogers, Xu and Ocker argue that although the topic of family life has not been extensively researched in China, marital stability is essential to a family-centered society, in that it is intricately connected to fertility and aging issues. Ma et al. Thus, whether female labor participation is a reason for marital dissolution is unclear.

The argument positing a positive relationship between marital quality and marital stability is empirically supported by Booth et al.

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Xu further supports that marital quality not only directly and positively affects marital stability but is also an intermediary to other factors, ultimately affecting marital stability. Furthermore, marital satisfaction, as a crucial index of marital quality, has positively influenced marital stability and contributes to spiritual and physical health Wilcox and Nock, Indeed, marital satisfaction itself also has direct and indirect positive effects on marital stability, in that a satisfied couple contributes to a stable marriage.

Marital satisfaction itself is a useful predictor for marital stability; also, it is a mediator for other factors affecting marital stability Hicks and Platt, ; Udry, ; White and Booth, ; Sanchez and Gager, Therefore, in this study, marital satisfaction Couples or women w chosen to measure couples' marital quality.

Subsequently, both the extensive and intensive effects of female labor participation on marital satisfaction for women and their spouses were investigated separately, including extensive inquiries regarding the presence of women in the labor market and intensive inquiries regarding the quantity of time devoted to jobs.

Research on marital quality and female employment is centered on whether and how women's employment affects marital quality, including comparisons between paid and unpaid labor, and between full-time and part-time employment Ye and Xu, In addition, there are gender differences in marital quality evaluation, where Bernard argues that women experience lower marriage satisfaction than men.

However, Jackson et al. Additionally, wives are affected by marital characteristics and perceptions of unfairness, while husbands are affected by their employment Vannoy and Philliber, ; Blair, ; Wilcox and Nock, ; Jackson et al.

Nock further argues that men are more ificantly advantaged by their marriages than women because men have benefited from the status of being married, regardless of marriage quality. Conversely, women are more likely to describe marital advantages based on quality experiences.

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Thus, this study developed Hypothesis 1: Women's labor participation has different effects on marital satisfaction based on gender. Wives' labor participation may decrease husbands' marital satisfaction. But wives' labor participation may not affect their own marital satisfaction. Gender role is a crucial factor in marital stability, which is supported by gender role functional theory by Parsons and gender role and competition theory by Becker Gender roles also affect marital satisfaction, fertility decisions, domestic labor division, and labor participation decisions Feng and Xiao, Furthermore, individuals are more likely to encounter marital problems when their counterparts' gender role attitudes exceed their own expectations Vannoy and Philliber, ; Li et al.

Vannoy and Philliber emphasized that gender roles, not female labor participation, affect marital quality. Traditional gender role attitudes toward women negatively impact human capital acquisition, educational return, and labor supply Kosteas, However, in more gender-equal societies, women and their husbands are more ificantly incentivized to support female labor participation Yu and Lee, Over the past 20 years, Chinese women have become more egalitarian than men, while men have remained more conservative in every age cohort Liu and Tong, ; Yang, ; Sun, Indeed, Couples or women w and Tong conclude that women who are more egalitarian toward gender roles are typically classified in higher socioeconomic statuses, make financial contributions to their families, have equivalent or higher occupational statuses, and exert familial assertiveness with their counterparts.

Thus, this study developed Hypothesis 2: Under traditional gender roles, wives' labor participation decreases both wives' and husbands' marital satisfaction. Despite changes in the workforce, the housekeeping role of women persists, and the gender gap among the share of housework remains statistically unchanged. The average time devoted to performing household chores for women per day is 2. Women also engage in 53 min of childrearing, compared to 17 min for men National Bureau of Statistics of China.

Yang concludes that gender roles in China have become more egalitarian, but attitudes around domestic labor division tend to be conservative. Most employed Chinese women work full-time jobs but are still responsible for unpaid care work; therefore, women have double or triple roles as dual-earners, housekeepers, and oftentimes caregivers Yang, ; Qi and Dong, Thus, with the burden of housework, women encounter psychological and emotional risks, which indirectly affect marital quality.

Husbands' reluctance to share household responsibilities will increase marital tension, especially for women who believe in egalitarian gender roles Robinson, ; Blair, ; Wilcox and Nock, ; Jackson et al. Additionally, wives who perform less housework will decrease their husbands' marital satisfaction Zhu and Qiao, Thus, this study developed Hypothesis 3: Husbands who participate in domestic work may increase their wives' marital satisfaction but decrease their own marital satisfaction.

Although women's dependencies on men have decreased with an increase in their own economic statuses, the bargaining power of resource exchanges, and traditional gender Couples or women w patterns still contribute to a couple's time allocation between market and domestic labors Cui, While overtime work is not socially acceptable in China, Qi and Dong highlight that it is common in China, especially in manufacturing and commercial service sectors. Additionally, women who work in rural regions work more hours than their urban counterparts. Wives' work hours have substantial effects on marital quality, negatively impacting marital interaction and positively contributing to family conflict Blair, ; Wu et al.

Wives' high worklo may increase their psychological pressure when they or their counterparts hold traditional gender attitudes Steiner et al. Thus, this study developed Hypothesis 4: Wives who work extended hours decrease their husbands' marital satisfaction. Blair argues that marital quality is measured by factors such as hours spent in the workplace, income, and work scheduling. Becker emphasizes that increasing public wages will affect female labor participation and marital quality by attracting women to the labor market and increasing marital risks.

Ogawa and Ermisch further argue that women with low earning husbands experience financial strain and increase the likelihood of divorce. Women prefer to marry men with better socioeconomic conditions. Gender income differences perpetuate a conservative pattern of domestic labor division, given that women, on average, earn lower wages than men.

However, if women have a higher income and occupational status than their husbands, and husbands are reluctant to accept this development, married couples are likely to experience a decrease in marital satisfaction and increase in the risk of divorce Zhu and Qiao, ; Sun, ; Liu, Thus, this study developed Hypotheses 5: When a wife's income exceeds that of her husband, a couple's marital satisfaction is decreased.

In addition, women who have more education and are employed are more resilient to marital disruptions and divorce petitions Mincer, ; Bumpass et al. According to marriage gradient theory, men with higher education and income can improve couples' martial satisfaction when they hold traditional gender roles Lu and Ruan, Evaluation of marital quality by wives is positively related to their husbands' education levels because husbands with higher education levels are more egalitarian in gender role attitudes Vannoy and Philliber, Thus, this study developed Hypotheses 6: When a wife is more educated than her husband, the couple's martial satisfaction is decreased.

Few studies have investigated the effects of title and position. However, from the perspective of time allocation, it is assumed that when women have seniority in the occupational market, it will affect the time they allocate to home, leisure, and work activities, increasing family conflicts and indirectly influencing their spouse's marital satisfaction. Thus, this study developed Hypotheses 7: When a wife holds a position of authority in the workplace, a husband's marital satisfaction is decreased.

Female labor participation depends on the socioeconomic conditions of their family. Women from lower-income families are more likely to participate in the labor market and suffer more from work and family conflicts, which will ultimately affect marital satisfaction Bumpass et al. When a husband's income satisfies household needs, women may choose to exit the labor market to parent at home Wu, Thus, this study developed Hypothesis 8: Married individuals from lower socioeconomic levels express lower marital satisfaction.

Becker argues that there are mutual relationships among female labor participation rates, fertility rates, and female divorce rates; if couples are highly likely to divorce, they may have no children. Given the lack of childcare services in the market, society has reverted to the traditional roles of women as caregivers, leaving them with the ultimate responsibility Ji, ; Qi and Dong, There is clearly a negative correlation in China between the of underage children and their mothers' potential to participate in the labor market; it is more likely for mothers to exit the labor market when children are under the age of 6 Ma et al.

In addition, Vannoy and Philliber argue that there are discrepancies in how the of children and their ages affects couples' marital quality evaluations. Ye and Xu further argue in favor of a mutually connected relationship among a family life cycle, children, and marital duration, as children can decrease their parents' marital satisfaction.

Mincer and Ogawa and Ermisch utilize the of children at varying ages as a factor to test the variance of women's divorce risk. Thus, this study developed Hypotheses 9: When wives are employed, an increase in the of their children correlates with a decrease in couples' marital satisfaction. Employed Chinese mothers in families of dual-earners may encounter work-to-family conflicts and tend to sacrifice their jobs for the family's sake. However, childcare responsibilities can be offset by kinship support customs, and a couple residing with elder relatives can lighten women's lo and positively mediate marital dissolution Pimentel, ; Xiu and Gunderson, ; Song, Wu argues that employed women can also deal with domestic work division with elders in extended families.

Indeed, Oishi and Oshio posit that there are no differences in Couples or women w positive effects on female labor participation as a result of co-residing with either the husband or wife's parents. They also indicate Couples or women w direct effects of co-residence on female labor participation, citing unclear effects on marital quality.

Thus, this study developed Hypotheses For wives who are employed and co-reside with their parents aged below 70 years, there is a positive correlation with couples' marital satisfaction, but for wives who are employed and co-residing with parents aged above 70 years, there is a negative correlation.

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